SARM White Papers, Lab Studies and Research Documents


GW-501516 (Cardarine)

  1. ^ Sznaidman ML, Haffner CD, Maloney PR, Fivush A, Chao E, Goreham D, Sierra ML, LeGrumelec C, Xu HE, Montana VG, Lambert MH, Willson TM, Oliver WR Jr, Sternbach DD (May 2003). “Novel selective small molecule agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta)–synthesis and biological activity”. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 13 (9): 1517–21. doi:10.1016/S0960-894X(03)00207-5PMID 12699745.
  2. ^ Dimopoulos N, Watson M, Green C, Hundal HS (October 2007). “The PPARdelta agonist, GW501516, promotes fatty acid oxidation but has no direct effect on glucose utilisation or insulin sensitivity in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells”. FEBS Lett. 581 (24): 4743–8. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2007.08.072PMID 17869249.
  3. ^ Barish GD, Narkar VA, Evans RM (March 2006). “PPAR delta: a dagger in the heart of the metabolic syndrome”J. Clin. Invest. 116 (3): 590–7. doi:10.1172/JCI27955PMC 1386117.PMID 16511591.
  4. ^ Uwe Dressel, Tamara L. Allen, Jyotsna B. Pippal, Paul R. Rohde, Patrick Lau, and George E. O. Musc (2003). “The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ß/d Agonist, GW501516, Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Catabolism and Energy Uncoupling in Skeletal Muscle Cells”Molecular Endocrinology (17): 2477–93. doi:10.1210/me.2003-015PMID 14525954.
  5. ^ Narkar VA, Downes M, Yu RT, Embler E, Wang Y-X, Banayo E, Mihaylova MM, Nelson MC, Zou Y, Juguilon H, Kang H, Shaw RJ,2 Evans RM (August 2008). “AMPK and PPARd Agonists Are Exercise Mimetics” (PDF). Cell 134 (3): 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.06.051PMC 2706130PMID 18674809.
  6. ^ “Exercise In A Pill: Researchers Identify Drugs That Enhance Exercise Endurance”Science News. ScienceDaily. 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
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  8. ^ Vihang A. Narkar, Michael Downes, Ruth T. Yu, Emi Embler, Yong-Xu Wang, Ester Banayo, Maria M. Mihaylova, Michael C. Nelson, Yuhua Zou, Henry Juguilon, Heonjoong Kang, Reuben J. Shaw, Ronald M. Evans, AMPK and PPARd Agonists Are Exercise Mimetics, Cell, Volume 134, Issue 3, 8 August 2008, Pages 405-415, ISSN 0092-8674, 10.1016/j.cell.2008.06.051. (}}
  9. ^ Krämer DK, Al-Khalili L, Guigas B, Leng Y, Garcia-Roves PM, Krook A (July 2007). “Role of AMP kinase and PPARdelta in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle”. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (27): 19313–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M702329200PMID 17500064.
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MK-2866 (Ostarine)

[1] Zilbermint MF et al. Future Oncol. 2009 Oct; 5(8):1211-20.

[2] Madeddu C et al. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2009 Dec; 3(4):258-62.

[3] Narayanan R et al. Nucl Recept Signal. 2008;6: e010.


SR9009 Reversed Effect of Mitochondrial Damage, Increased Exercise Capacity in Mice

Rev-erb-α modulates skeletal muscle oxidative capacity by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy

S-4 (Andarine)

[1] Yin D et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Mar;304(3):1334-40.

[2] Chen J et al. Mol Interv. 2005 Jun;5(3):173-88.

[3] Gao W et al. Endocrinology. 2004 Dec;145(12):5420-8.

[4] Gao W et al. Pharm Res. 2006 Aug;23(8):1641-58.

[5] Gao W et al. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Feb;34(2):254-60.


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  4. ^ H.Z. Ke, X.N. Wang, J. O’Malley, B. Lefker, D.D. Thompson (2005). “Selective androgen receptor modulators – Prospects for emerging therapy in osteoporosis?”J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 5 (4): 355.